What Is the Difference Between Conference Papers, Journal Papers, Term Papers, Seminar Papers, Proceeding, Transactions, Seminar, Technical Report and Patents?

Written by Resurchify | Updated on: July 14, 2023

What Is the Difference Between Conference Papers, Journal Papers, Term Papers, Seminar Papers, Proceeding, Transactions, Seminar, Technical Report and Patents?

Almost all scholars who perform research come across this basic question. And if you are in this field, you should know the basic differences among the various manuscript of research work. Things are readily available at one click today and that is why, it is more important to know the difference between conferences, journal, patents, proceedings, etc. so that you refer the right piece of work.

Here comes the most common question: the difference between conference and journal. So coming back to the response, let us first understand what a conference paper is.

What is a Conference Paper?

A conference paper is often a combination of a written document and an oral presentation. You may be asked to transmit a copy of your paper to a commentator before presenting at the conference. As a result, your paper should follow the conventions of academic papers and oral presentations.

Conference papers are usually published in collections called proceedings, which are printed by big publication houses, organizations, university press or are simply available through online means.

Conference papers are mostly short since they usually have a limit on the number of pages.

What is a Conference?

conference is a place where eminent researchers are physically present to discuss and present their research specific to their field. Researchers submit their papers to a conference according to specific guidelines and timeline specified by particular conferences. This paper is then sent to reviewers. After their review, the result is communicated to the researcher. Upon their acceptance, the authors are called for the presentation. 

Academic conferences take several forms, but the most common in English is a series of panels in which two to four researchers give lectures and then respond to questions and remarks. The text for one of these presentations is called a conference paper. Clarity, substance, insight, and stylistic flair are all attributes that distinguish good research-based writing. The distinction is that a conference paper is for oral presentation.

You won't be able to present what you know about your topic in 10–15 minutes. You won't have time to convey lengthy background information, and you shouldn't give a scientific literature review (yawn!); instead, present your ideas and support them with evidence. You want to present a clear, compelling argument supported by a few pieces of evidence. Your audience will not have the opportunity to read your prepared material because the conference paper is oral communication. 

Attending an academic conference, whether to submit a paper, listen to others, or network, has various advantages. 

Conferences are especially beneficial for postgraduate researchers who are just getting started with their study and aren't quite ready to publish yet, or who want to meet other students.

They're also an opportunity to get feedback on your research by asking questions and discussions with the audience. This can help you think of fresh ways to broaden your paper, perhaps into a journal article.

There are a lot of conferences taking place around the world for different fields. You can visit list of conferences.

Now, coming to what a journal paper is.

What is a Journal Paper

A journal paper is a longer piece of writing which has a definite structure and is published in journals

It's beneficial to become familiar with the various types of papers that journals publish. Even though there appear to be many different sorts of articles published due to the various names they are published under, the papers published are one of the following types: original research, review articles, short reports or letters, case studies, and methodology. Journals are devoted to a single discipline or subject of study. Journals, unlike newspapers and magazines, are written for academic or technical audiences rather than general readers. Serial numbers are assigned to journals because they are published regularly (monthly, quarterly, etc.). 

Before you begin writing your paper, it's a good idea to identify your target journal. Then, to improve your chances of approval, you can adjust your work to the journal's requirements and readership. Once the journal is decided, read a few of the pieces that have already been published, especially those that are related to your research. This can assist you to figure out what the editors are looking for and help you focus your writing efforts.

The target audience is the second thing you should think about when creating your essay. The journal you've chosen will provide you with more details about the audience that will read your work. Keep your readers' attention by focusing on your core point. Lack of attention is a typical issue that can obstruct efficient communication.

What is a Journal?

journal is a publication that is printed periodically. It is a collection of peer-reviewed and credible papers. Impact factor of a journal helps in measuring the citations of the paper of the journal. There is no place unlike the conference, where you have to go and present your paper. Once the journal is submitted and in the case where it requires some changes according to the comments provided by the reviewer, completion of which may result in its publication then, there could be a lot of rounds to complete that. There is no specific timeline for the review. This may take a lot of time as compared to conference papers.

The frequency of issue of journal varies from every journal. It can be monthly to yearly. Also, journal paper is generally more elaborative than the conference papers. They have flexible page limit and are expected to be a lot more detailed than the conference paper.

On the same line of a journal but with different intent is a University journal, which is a publication of a particular university. Unlike journals, they might not have been reviewed. And this may give rise to a few weak points in the journal.

What is the Difference Between a Conference Paper and a Journal Paper?

As a researcher, you're probably confused about the difference between a conference article and a journal manuscript. You will learn how to distinguish between these categorically divided research papers in this post. First and foremost, you will learn the distinction between a conference and a journal, as well as the kind of papers that both platforms require.

Difference between Conference paper and Journal Paper are as follow:

Basis of Difference

Conference Paper

Journal Paper



A conference paper is often a combination of a written document and an oral presentation. You may be asked to transmit a copy of your paper to a commentator before presenting at the conference. As a result, your paper should follow the conventions of academic papers and oral presentations.

A journal is a regular periodical publication that contains a collection of peer-reviewed papers and is published on a monthly or bi-monthly basis. A high 'impact rating,' which is a measure of citations to papers in the journal, is beneficial.



Presented in Conferences and sometimes published in the conference proceeding. Conference papers are always gathered and published as "proceedings," which are frequently produced by the conference's host university, renowned publishers, scholarly associations, or even published online.

Papers are accepted or rejected for presentation at conferences, and those that are accepted are assured to be published in the "proceedings."

Published in Journals. Journal papers appear in reputable academic journals. The publication dates differ from one journal to the next.

In the case of journal publication, this is not the case.

The written research paper is examined numerous times before being published in a journal, and each time you have the opportunity to make changes to the written content. Your way of thinking or creative expressions, on the other hand, are unrestricted.


Fewer pages in comparison to Jornal’s paper.

More pages compare to the conference paper.


Only require a general review process.

It requires a firm review process.

Format and Citation

Only three to four headings are used in a conference paper to express the researcher's original thinking or experiment.

The APA Style is commonly used to designate the citation style in both conference and journal papers.

Table: Conference paper vs. Journal Paper

Finally, it is usually recommended that you compose your conference paper while keeping the specific journal in mind. When you prepare a conference paper to fulfil the requirements of a certain journal, your conference paper becomes eligible for publishing in that journal with a few modifications. This will save time and effort when it comes to turning a conference paper into a journal article.

Key Difference Between Journal and Conference Paper

The key difference between a journal and a conference paper is that a journal paper is a longer piece of writing which has a definite structure and is published in journals, whereas a conference paper is generally a short and a more precise paper that is presented at a conference.

Different Types of Conference Papers

You must understand the many types of conference papers. Depending on the conference, you may be requested to supply one or more of the following documents:

The abstract 

It provides a summary of your research (Generally, 250 words or less)- An abstract is a short overview of the paper you wish to give at an academic conference, but it's so much more. It shows a great deal about you as well as the paper you're submitting. The study problem, aims, methodology/experimental design, results and discussion, and conclusion should all be mentioned briefly in the abstract. The abstract should not include section titles. The abstract should not include citations, references, figures, or tables.

General guidelines for preparing the abstract 

The abstract length should not be longer than 250 words in general. The top, bottom, and right margins of the page should all be 2.5 cm, with the left margin being 3 cm. The typefaces, sizes, and styles for the title, authors' names, and affiliations should match those in the paper's header. The name of the presenter should be highlighted. The associated author's name should be preceded by a #> sign, and his or her e-mail address should be indicated. 

Extended abstract

Summary of your study at a high level (less than two pages)- The extended abstract is a more detailed version of the abstract describing the research work and findings. 

General guidelines for preparing the extended abstract 

The expanded abstract should be typed in the same document, beginning on the second page and ending on the third page, after the abstract. The sections of the expanded abstract should include Introduction, Methodology/Experimental Design, Results and Discussion, and Conclusion. The introduction should include a summary of the study's background, research challenge, and goals. The approach should be sufficient to grasp the research design at the very least.

As needed, you may provide supporting figures, tables, and illustrations, limiting the discussion to the study's primary conclusions. In Harvard format, references should be provided in alphabetical order on a separate page. The maximum number of pages is four, in Calibri font, 11pt, single-spaced (excluding the page with the abstract above and references). The page's top, bottom, and right margins should all be 2.5 cm, while the left margin should be 3 cm. All tables, photos, and figures should be in the center Figures and pictures should be numbered, and figure legends placed beneath the figure or image; similarly, tables should be numbered, and the table heading should be placed at the top of the page.

Brief or short paper

Summary of your findings (less than four pages)- The purpose of the Short Research Papers track is to encourage the conference community to submit short papers that address fresh, provocative, and cross-cutting topics. 

General guidelines for preparing the short paper 

Figures and pictures should be numbered, and figure legends placed beneath the figure or image; similarly, tables should be numbered, and the table heading should be placed at the top. Critical literature reviews of a developing issue, theory-building that is in the early phases of development, or new analysis/methods applied to existing data are examples of short research publications. Short articles on application design, for example, may not cover the complete iterative design cycle (observation, design, implementation, assessment, and so on), but instead, focus on a few key themes.

Full research paper

A full-fledged article detailing your research (6-8 pages). A research paper is a text submitted for academic peer evaluation by the author(s). Integrative reviews or original reports of significant new work are present in research articles: theoretical, empirical, and/or in the design, development, and/or deployment of novel concepts, systems, and mechanisms. A research track program committee will examine research articles to ensure that they fulfill high academic publication requirements.

While reviewing papers, relevance intellectual quality, creativity, and presenting clarity are crucial. A research paper can be up to 10 pages long, whereas a short research paper can extend to four pages long. An approved research paper publishes in the conference proceedings. The author either executes a copyright transfer agreement with the ACM or pays for open access.

The conference website should include complete information on paper requirements, as well as any page limits and extra page fees that may apply. If you can't find information about your conference's requirements, contact the organizer (also listed on the conference website).

Different Types of Journal papers

To add to the confusion, different journals, publishers, and academic communities do not always use the same labels for paper formats. A paper-type label used in one discipline may not be the same as a label used in another discipline. If you're a less experienced author or a first-time writer inexperienced with journal and paper typologies, it's easy to become lost. We frequently encounter participants in our paper writing course "How to publish in peer-reviewed journals" who are simply unaware of the variations between the various paper kinds and the choices they can and should make when writing papers.

We'll go over the ten distinct types of papers that may be found in journals in a brief rundown. With this overview, we hope to accomplish two goals: First and foremost, we want to clear up any misunderstandings so that you understand the distinctions. Second, we hope that our list has given you some ideas. If you're stumped as to what you could write and publish, the list below may be of assistance. It doesn't have to be a traditional research paper; there are good alternatives.

Most common Journal paper types

The Research Paper

The most prevalent sort of paper is this one. A Research Paper is what academics commonly refer to when they talk about a paper. They have a prominent place in peer-reviewed publications and take up a significant amount of space. Furthermore, they are the primary reason for the existence of journals. This paper type is distinguished by the fact that it is a report of unique research findings on a clearly stated research issue.

We distinguish paper by a report of unique research findings on a clearly stated research issue. The research is often analytic, based on a hypothesis tested through an experimental approach, and can span scientific, medical, social, and humanities subjects. The author did the research that led to the paper publication(team). In most cases, Study Papers follow a standard pattern that begins with an introduction that states the research subject and its importance, then proceeds to Methods, Results, Discussion, and finally to a separate Conclusion section. The paper length ranges from 5,000 to 8,000 words.

The Methods Paper

This paper introduces a novel experimental method, test, or procedure. The approaches mentioned must be brand new advancements or improved versions of existing methods. A Methods Paper has a comparable structure and length to a Research Paper. Methods Papers typically answer topics such as "How to do this..." and "How to improve this...". Even if the results aren't the focus of the work, most journals want evidence or an application example of the methods described.

The Review Paper

This paper type provides a detailed assessment of the state-of-the-art in a given research topic. It summarises the field's primary research literature, which might range from 50 to 100 references or more. It also identifies research gaps and prospective future research topics. Depending on the author's viewpoints/objectives, major themes, theories, difficulties, controversies, and trends in knowledge may be highlighted and discussed. This paper type is an example of the secondary research literature because it summarises and expands on other research literature. Review Papers serve as a resource for scholars interested in the subject matter. They can garner a lot of attention and citations. Because the article does not need the author to publish their research findings as part of the project's literature review at an early stage. Submission of unsolicited papers, or the journal editors can encourage you to submit one.

There are three common categories of review papers:

  • The Literature Review is a standard Review Paper that summarises and analyses published literature on a broad topic, reflecting the current level of knowledge and highlighting knowledge gaps.
  • The Systematic Review is more systematic and focused on answering a single research issue using primary research material, other review articles, and possibly grey literature.
  • The Meta-Analysis is similar to the Systematic Review using statistical tools to analyze results from related studies on a specific issue rather than presenting and relying on data from a single study. 

The Discussion Paper

This paper permits the author to discuss a topic. The article states the author's opinion by referring to instances from existing literature without reviewing this body of knowledge. A Discussion Paper can also convey the author's perspective on a study's interpretation, analysis, or methodologies. It's a brief essay focused on constructive, evidence-based criticism of the work. It also permits authors to propose a new hypothesis or interpret previously published data in new ways. The author's original research findings are rarely included, and the paper's length ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 words.

The Data Paper

This document type is for describing data sets and observations that support new research and theoretical breakthroughs. To highlight the relevance of the data, the publication usually provides insight or instances of a relevant scientific application. Experiments, lab measurements, modeling output, and observations are all examples of data sets.

The Theory Paper

This type of article does not present empirical research the same way as Research Papers. However, the empirical study can provide proof and support. In respect to a given field of study or body of information, a Theory Paper introduces and investigates new or established concepts and principles. Theoretical papers in philosophy, literature studies, anthropology, and other humanities and social sciences are frequently theoretic. Theory Papers are less prevalent but equally valuable in the medical, natural, and engineering sciences.

Short Communication

This paper type is appropriate for time-sensitive research subjects and disciplines because it contains significant research findings that require or benefit from speedy publication. It might be anything the journal editor believes will be of considerable interest to the publication's readers. The research provided is limited in scope and detail, but the work has a short time until publication, it will reach readers rapidly. Typically, a severe word limit of 1,000-3,000 words. Short Communications have the same style and structure as Research Papers.

The Case Study

This paper type describes a situation in which an individual, a location, an event, or a phenomenon study. We use Case Studies to alert other researchers to the probability of specific phenomena occurring. As a result, the paper uses a case study as its foundation. Unlike traditional empirical investigations, in which the researcher intervenes or manipulates the conditions of the environment, this paper type describes the actual, unaltered situations as observed. As a result, a Case Study is a descriptive document that answers questions based on observations. This form of research is usual in the natural sciences, social sciences, and medicine to describe the incidence of previously unknown or emergent illnesses. Two sub-types are distinguished in a medical (clinical) context

  1. Clinical Case Studies are observational studies that report on the details of patients from medical and clinical practice.
  2. Clinical trials are research investigations in which new treatment approaches are tried on human volunteers according to a pre-determined study methodology.

Both are similar in length to a Research Paper, but they need clinical knowledge and experience, as well as strict ethical and reliability criteria.

The Educational Paper

The goal of this document type is to provide instructions on applying and implementing a method, procedure, technique, or expertise. An Educational Paper, like a Methods Paper, strives to provide highly specific directions for the reader's guidance of the gained knowledge. It can also train readers on how to share their own knowledge and experience with others, or it can use an instructional method to teach readers how to do something (typically something new) rather than just telling them how to do it.

The Book Review

Paper is a short contribution in which authors present a critical and unbiased assessment of a contemporary book identified as of interest to the journal's audience. A scholar who is an expert in the topic of study provides a synopsis of the book's content as well as a judgment of its originality and usefulness to readers. You can contact a journal editor and suggest a book review if you come across a new, fascinating book on your subject.

There is another research manuscript known as a Term paper.

Term Paper

term paper is a kind of research paper which is written by students during their academic year. It focuses on an idea or a discussion point. It is mostly, an original piece of work and usually long.

Now, let us try to understand what a conference proceeding is.

Conference Proceeding

It is a published record of a conference, symposium or other meeting but might not include details of the papers presented by the scholars. In such a record, when the complete details or the text is included, it is called a transaction.

Now, we come to the seminar.


seminar is held within an academic institution and focuses on a particular subject. It is a form of an intellectual lecture. The presenter usually comes prepared with some presentations and often there is some material which the participants can take to their home.

Another manuscript can be a technical report.

Technical Report

It is a document that describes the research in terms of the process, status, or outcomes of the problem statement. These reports rarely undergo any review.

Now, we will understand what a patent is.


patent is a form of intellectual property. It provides the owner the right to exclude anyone from making, using, selling, and importing the patent idea for a limited period, usually twenty years. In most countries, patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder can sue someone who infringes the patent.

For example, if a patent has been granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or USPTO, the patent holder will have legal protection to own, produce, sell, use, and create their product for 20 years.

This idea of creating patents was developed so that people pursue their innovative ideas. It also acts as a source of money by either selling the patent or giving the right to use the patent technology.

There are various types of patents. Few of them are listed below.

  • Software patents
  • Electrical engineering patents
  • Mechanical patents
  • Design patents



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Resurchify is an information portal for the people pursuing research. We bring to you a varied list of research gatherings like conferences, journals, meetings, symposiums, etc across multiple areas. Along with that, we also share a huge chunk of details of these events.

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